NU Syllabus 2022 – Honours 1st Year Botany Syllabus PDF Download

NU Syllabus 2022 – Honours 1st Year Botany Subject Syllabus PDF Download. NU Syllabus 2022 – Honours 1st Year PDF Download All Subjects. NU Syllabus – National University of Bangladesh all subject honours 1st year. National University Bangladesh all course and subject list name. Nu honours syllabus 2022 published by national University from 2013-14 effective session.

First Year Syllabus, Department of Botany, Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course, Effective from the Session: 2013–2014.


Subject: Botany
Syllabus for Four Year B.Sc. Honours Course
Effective from the Session: 2013-2014

Year wise Papers and marks distribution



Paper Code Paper Title Marks Credits
       213001 Microbiology 75 3
213003 Mycology 75 3
213005 Phycology 75 3
213006 Practical-I 75 3
212807 Chemistry-I

Chemistry-I Practical

100 4
212808 50 2
213105 Zoology-I

Zoology Practical – I

100 4
213106 50 2
211501 History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh 100 4
   Total= 700 28


                                                 Detailed Syllabus


Paper Code        213001 Marks: 75 Credits: 3          Class Hours: 45
Paper Title:  Microbiology
  1. A brief historical background and scope of Microbiology.
  2. Living organisms: Characters and possible origin, spontaneous generation, biogenesis and germ theory of infectious diseases.
  3. Position of microorganisms in the Living world: Five-kingdom concept, three domain concept, prokaryotic versus eukaryotic cells.
  4. Prions, Viroids, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma: Discovery, Structure, general characteristics

and importance.

  1. Viruses: Discovery, nature, structure of RNA virus (TMV) and DNA virus (T2 phage); multiplication of viruses; transmission of plant viruses, importance of viruses.
  2. Archaea: General characteristics and importance.
  3. Bacteria: Prokaryotic nature, size, shape and arrangement of bacterial cell; chemical composition of flagella, pili, capsule, cell wall, cell membrane, nucleoid, cytoplasm, endospore; classification of bacteria on the basis of flagella, multiplication of bacteria (binary fission), importance of bacteria.
  4. Actinomycetes: Discovery, structure, general characteristics and importance.
  5. Growth and nutrition of microorganisms: Generation time, phases of growth curve, essential elements of microbial growth, nutritional groups of microorganisms (autotrophs and heterotrophs).
  6. Microbial association: Introduction, positive and negative interaction, commensalism, synargism, antagonism and symbiosis.
  7. Bacterial and viral diseases: Major human bacterial and viral diseases e.g. cholera, typhoid, dysenteries, tetanus, tuberculosis, pneumonia, AIDS and polio.


Books Recommended

  1. Frobisher, M., R.D. Hinsdill, K.T. Grabtree and C.R. Gooddheart. 1974: Fundamentals of Microbiology (9th ed.). W.B. Saunders Co. London.
  2. Dubey, R.C. and D.K. Maheshwari. 1999: A Text Book of Microbiology. S. Chand and Co. Ltd.
  3. Pelczer, M.J., E.C.S. Chan and N.R. Krieg. 1993: Microbiology: Concepts and Applications. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc. New York.
  4. Tortora, G.J., B.R. Funke and C.L. Case. 1997: Microbiology (6th ed.) Addison Wes-ley Longman, Inc., California.
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Paper Code 213003 Marks: 75 Credits: 3          Class Hours: 45
Paper Title:  Mycology


  1. Introduction and scope of Mycology.
  2. Myxomycetes: A brief account of the habit, habitats, structure, reproduction and importance.
  3. Fungi: General characteristics, vegetative structure, chemical nature of cell wall, growth, nutrition and reproduction.
  4. Classification of fungi: Classification according to G. C. Ainsworth 1966, and C. J. Alexopoulos & C. W. Mims1986.
  5. General characteristics of the following fungal classes and study of the somatic and reproductive features of the genera mentioned against each class:

(i) Chytridiomycetes: Olpidium, Synchytrium;

  • Oomycetes: Saprolegnia, Phytophthora and Albugo;
  • Zygomycetes: Mucor, Rhizopus;
  • Ascomycetes: Ascobolus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Erysiphe, Claviceps, Neurospora.
  • Basidiomycetes: Puccinia, Ustilago, Agaricus,
  • Deuteromycetes: Candida, Alternaria, Cercospora, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Colletotrichum.
  1. Role of fungi as: Saprophytes, plant parasites, mycorrhizae as plant symbionts, poisonous and edible mushrooms, in bread and brewer industry and producers of important metabolites.


  1. Lichen: Habitats, habit, morphology, classification, anatomy, reproduction and importance.

Books Recommended

  1. Ainsworth, G. C. 1996: A general purpose classification of fungi. Bibliography of systematic Mycology, pp 1-4, Commonwealth Mycological Institute, London.
  2. Alexopoulos, C.J., C.W. Mims and M. Blackwell. 1996: Introductory Mycology (4th ed.), Wiley, Eastern Ltd., Calcutta, India.
  3. Hawker, Lilian, E. 1967: Fungi, Hutchinson Univ. Library, Cambridge Univ. Press, London.
  4. Moore-Landecker, Elizabath. 1982: Fundamentals of the Fungi. Prentice-Hall. Inc., New Jersey, USA.
  5. Webster, J. 1980: Introduction to Fungi. Cambridge Univ. Press, London, UK.


Paper Code Paper Title Marks Credits Class Hours
213005 Phycology 75 3 45


  1. Introduction: Definition, history and scope of Phycology.
  2. Algal Habitat: Aquatic (fresh, brackish and marine water) terrestrial and sub-aerial.
  3. Classification of algae: Bases of classification (pigments, reserve foods, chloroplasts and flagella) classification up to Class according to F.E. Fritsch (1946) and R.R. Lee (1989). General characteristics of the different groups of algae.
  4. Pigment and Reserve Food: Pigments and reserve food materials in major divisions of Algae.
  5. Plastid: Types of chloroplasts of algae and their distribution.
  6. Morphology: Range of vegetative structure of algae.
  7. Reproduction: Vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction and perennation in algae.
  8. General characteristics, classification up to order and reproduction of the following classes and the study of life history of the genera mentioned against each class:
  9. Cyanophyceae: Oscillatoria, Nostoc, Anabaena and Gloeotrichia;
  10. Chlorophyceae: Chlamydomonas, Chlorella, Volvox , Oedogonium and Fritschiella;
  • Charophyceae: Chara;
  1. Euglenophyceae: Euglena;
  2. Bacillariophyceae: Navicula and Chaetoceros;
  3. Phaeophyceae: Ectocarpus and Sargassum;
  • Rhodophyceae: Polysiphonia and Gelidium;
  • Cryptophyceae: Cryptomonas;
  1. Xanthophyceae:
  2. Growth pattern and nutrition in algae.
  3. Origin and evolutionary trends in algae.
  4. Phytoplankton: Definition and general characteristics, floating mechanisms, classification, ecological and biological importance, general composition of fresh and marine water phytoplankton.
  5. Importance: Economic and biological importance of freshwater and marine algae including nitrogen economy of nature.

Books Recommended

  1. Bold H.C. and M.J. Wynne. 1978: Introduction to the Algae. Prentice Hall, India.
  2. Chapman, V.J. and D.J. Chapman. 1973: The Algae. Macmillan, London.
  3. Fritsch, F.E. 1946: The Structure and Reproduction in Algae. Vol. 1 & 2, Cambridge Univ. Press.
  4. Lee, R.R. 1989: Phycology. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.
  5. Prescott, G.W. 1968: The Algae: A Review. Thomas Nelson, London.
  6. Round F.E. 1973: The Biology of Algae. St. Martin’s Press, New York.
  7. Round, F.E. 1981: The Ecology of Algae, Cambridge Univ. Press, UK.
  8. Smith, G.W. 1950: The Fresh Water Algae of the United States. McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York.
  9. Van dam Hoek, C.D.G. Mann and H.M. Johns. 1996: Algae: An Introduction to Phycology, Cambridge Univ. Press.
  10. ivq, k¨vgj Kzgvi; cvj, wbkx_ Kzgvi; cvkv, †gv¯—dv Kvgvj, 1995:Acy®úK Dw™¢`weÁvb (1g), evsjv GKv‡Wgx, XvKv|


Paper Code

Paper Title Marks Credits Class Hours
213006 Practical-I (Microbiology, Mycology & Phycology) 75 3 45


Microbiology: 25 Marks

  1. Handling and use of bright field compound microscope.
  2. Microscopic observation of curd and nodule bacteria.
  3. Staining and observation of bacteria by simple staining and Gram staining technique.
  4. Observation of bacterial and actinomycetous colonies.
  5. Demonstration of bacterial colonies by potato culture technique.
  6. Study of viral plant disease symptoms e.g. tobacco mosaic and bean mosaic, Acalyphya mosaic etc.
  7. Demonstration of microbial products e.g. yoghurt, cheese and antibiotic.


Mycology: 25 Marks

  1. Techniques for preparing temporary slides of fungal specimens for microscopic examination.
  2. Preparation of lactophenol and cotton blue
  3. Laboratory study of the following fungi:

Synchytrium, Albugo, Rhizopus, Mucor, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Ascobolus, Puccinia, Agaricus, Fusarium, Alternaria, Collectotrichum, Cercospora, Polyporus

  1. Study of lichen (crustose, foliose and fruticose)
  2. Demonstration of fungal products e.g. bread, alcohol, citric acid and yeast grain.


Phycology: 25 Marks

  1. Preparation of fixatives used in algal preservation
  2. Collection and preservation of algae from various habitats.
  3. Study of the genera covered in the theory with emphasis on both vegetative and reproductive structures.
  4. Study of planktonic, benthic, terrestrial, sub-aerial, epiphytic, epizoic, marine and brackish water algae.
  5. Local excursion.


Instruction to the Examiners



Subject Code:                           Subject Title: Microbiology, Mycology & Phycology

Time: 6 hours                                       Marks: 75


  1. Specimen “A” will be a pure / potato culture of bacteria


Distribution of marks                                                                Marks

(i) Preparation of slide                           —————                   3.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams                     —————                   2.0

(iii) Description                                     —————                   2.0

(iv) Comments                                      —————                   1.0


Total                                                                            8.0



  1. Specimen “B” will be curd / nodule


Distribution of marks                                                                Marks

(i) Preparation of slide                           —————                   3.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams                     —————                   2.0

(iii) Description                                     —————                   2.0

(iv) Comments                                      —————                   1.0


Total                                                                            8.0



  1. Comment on C, D, E and F 1.0 × 4 = 4.0


C will be bacterial or actinomycetous colony or slide

D & E will be microbial products e.g. antibiotics, cheese, curd, root nodule

F will viral plant disease symptoms e.g. tobacco mosaic, bean mosaic, Acalypha mosaic etc.






  1. Specimen “G” and “H” Will be fungal specimens or fungal culture


Distribution of marks                                                                Marks

(i) Preparation of slide                           —————                   2.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams                     —————                   2.0

(iii) Identifying characters                      —————                   2.0

(iv) Identify genus with class                 —————                   1.0


Total                                                                7.0 × 2 = 14.0



  1. Specimen I, J, K and L will be samples of fungi and fungal products (bread, alcohol, citric acid and yeast grain).


Distribution of marks                                                                Marks

(i) Identifying characters                        —————                   1.0

(ii) Identification                                   —————                   0.5


Total                                                                            1.5 × 4 = 6.0





  1. Specimen “M” will be a mixture of algae of different classes (Spirogyra and Hydrodictyon must not be given and students must have to present three genera from three different classes)


Distribution of marks                                                                Marks

(i) Preparation of slide                           —————                   1.0

(ii) Neat labelled diagrams                     —————                   2.0

(iii) Identifying characters                      —————                   2.0

(iv) Identify genus with class                 —————                   1.0


Total                                                                6.0 × 3 = 18.0



  1. Specimen N and O will be algal specimens or algal slides


Distribution of marks                                                                Marks

(i) Identifying characters                        —————                   1.5

(ii) Identification                                   —————                   1.0


Total                                                                            1.5 × 2 = 3.0


  1. Collection (Mycology & Phycology) ————— 6.0
  2. Practical Note Book (Microbiology, Mycology& Phycology) ————— 8.0





Paper Code Paper Title Marks Credits Class Hours
212807 Chemistry-I 100 4 60
  1. Measurements and the Scientific Method: Measurements, units, SI units, reliability of measurements – precision and accuracy, rounding off, significant figures, significant figures in calculation, mean and median, errors, sources of errors.
  2. Structure of atom: Atom, isotopes, Atomic masses, Mass spectroscopy, Atomic nucleus, Nuclear binding energy, Nuclear reactions –fission and Fusion reactions, Bohr atom model, Spectrum of atomic hydrogen, Dual nature of electron, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, Quantum numbers, Atomic orbitals, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle, Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity, Electronic configuration of atoms.
  3. Periodic Table: Periodic law, Periodic table, Electronic configurations from the periodic table, Periodic properties of the elements such as ionization energies, Electron affinity, Electro negativity, Atomic/ionic radius along a period and down a group, Diagonal relationship
  4. Chemical Bonds: Chemical bond, Types of chemical bonds – ionic, Covalent coordination, Metallic, Hydrogen, Polar and no polar covalent bonds, Lewis dot structure, Shapes of molecules, VSEPR theory, Valence bond theory, Hybridization, ó- and ð-bonding in compounds, Molecular orbital theory.
  5. Oxidation and reduction: Redox reactions, Writing and balancing Redox reactions,
  6. States of Matter: Comparison between solids, Liquids and gases, Changes of state, m.p. and b.p, phase transition, Phase diagram of water.
  7. Gaseous and Their Properties: The gas laws , The perfect gas equation, the kinetic theory of

gases, Van der waals equations, Real gases, Graham’s laws of diffusion and Effusion.

  1. Solutions: Solubility and intermolecular forces, Solubility product, types of concentration units,

Colligative properties of solutions, Henry’s law, Nernst distribution law.

  1. Acids and Bases: Various concepts on acids and bases, Conjugate acids and bases, Neutralization reactions acid- base strength, pH, Acid-base titrations, Acid-base indicators, Acid-base properties of salts, The common ion effect, Buffer solutions, Hard and soft acids and bases.
  2. Chemical Equilibrium: Reversible reactions and the equilibrium state, the equilibrium law, Reaction quotients and equilibrium constants, Calculations using Kc, Kp, Homogeneous and heterogeneous equilibria, The principle of Le Chatelier and Brown.
  3. Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons, Saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, Alkanes, Alkenes, And Alkynes, Nomenclature of organic compounds-the IUPAC system natural gas, Petroleum, Petrochemicals.
  4. Study of different classes of organic Compounds: Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Amines and Amides.

Books recommended:

  1. General Chemistry, D. D. Ebbing, Houghton Miffin Co.
  2. Chemistry – The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change, M. Siberberg. WCB /Mc Graw- Hill.
  3. Introduction to Modern Inogranic Chemistry, S.Z. haider, Friends’ International.
  4. Principles of physical chemistry, M. M. Huque and M. A Nawab, students’ publications.
  5. Essentials of Physical chemistry, B.S Bahl, G.D Tuli and A Bahl, S. Chand & Co.Ltd.
  6. Advanced Organic Chemistry, B.S. Bahl and A Bahl, S. Chand & Co. Ltd.
  7. A Level chemistry by C.W. Ramsden
  8. Organic Chemistry: T Morrison and R.N Boyed,
  9. Fundamental of Organic Chemistry by W Solomons



Paper Code Paper Title Marks Credits Class Hours
212808 Chemistry-I Practical 50 2 30
  1. Preparation of FeSO4 7H2O, Mohr’s salt and potash alum.
  2. Separation and identification of four radicals from a mixture of anions and cations The cations are pb2+, Cu2+, Cd2+ , Al3+ , Fe2+ , Fe3+, Co2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ Ca2+, Ba2+, Na+, K+ , and NH4 + , the anions are NO3, CO32-, S2-, SO42-, Cl, Br and I+
  3. Standardization of NaOH solution using standard oxalic acid solution,
  4. Determination of Fe2+ using standard permanganate solution 5.

Iodometric determination of copper(II) using standard Na2SO3 solution.

  1. Gravimetric determination of nickel as Ni(HDMG)2 complex 7.

Determination of the enthalpy change for the decomposition sodium dicarbonate into sodium carbonate.

  1. Determination of the pH- neutralization curves of a strong acid by a strong base.
  2. Investigation of the conductance behaviour of electrolytic solution and applications (acetic acid)
  3. Determination of the presence of nitrogen, halogen and sulphur in organic compounds.
  4. Identification of the functional groups (unsaturation, alcohol, phenol, carbonyl, aldehlyde, ketone,

carboxylic acid, aromatic amine, amide and nitro- groups) in organic compound.


Books Recommended:

  1. A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, A.I. Vogel, 3rd/4th edition, ELBS and Longman Green & Co. Ltd.
  2. A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis, A.I. Vogel 3rd /4th edition, ELBS and Longman Green & Co. Ltd.
  3. Practical physical chemistry, A Faraday.
  4. A Text Book of practical organic chemistry, A.I. Vogel, ELBS edition.


Paper Code Paper Title Marks Credits Class Hours
213105 Zoology –I 100 4 60

Group-A: Introduction to Zoology: Protozoa and non-chordates

Introduction to Zoology: Definition and scope of zoology. Foundation of animal life: Level of organization (protoplasmic, cellular, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, species, individual, population, community, fauna, biota, ecosystem, biosphere, biodiversity. Cells: Cell and cell theory, structure and functions of cell organelles. Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis and oogenesis; placentation. Classification of animals: Animal kingdoms; classification up to phyla on the basis of organization, symmetry, coelom and phylogeny; different taxa and Linnean hierarchy and nomenclature.

Protozoa and non-chordates: General characteristics of the following protozoa and non-chordates phyla with examples – Apicomplexa, Ciliophora, Porifera, Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, Gastrotricha, Nematomorpha, Rotifera, Acanthocephala, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Priapulida, Supuncula, Pogonophora, Tardigrada, Onychophora, Phoronida, Brachiopoda, Bryozoa/Ectoprocta,


General and diagnostic characteristics of the following phyla with examples – Sarcomastigophora, Annelida, Arthropoda and Mollusca.

Type study of the following with their systematic position, habitats, external morphology, organ systems such as digestion, movement, circulation, respiration, excretion, nervous, and reproduction; food and feeding habits, mode of life and development –

  1. Phylum Sarcomastigophora: Euglena
  2. Phylum Apicomplexa: Eimeria
  3. Phylum Ciliophora: Paramecium
  4. Phylum Porifera: Scypha
  5. Phylum Cnidaria: Obelia
  6. Phylum Nematoda: Ascaris
  7. Phylum Mollusca: Pila
  8. Phylum Arthropoda: Prawn
  9. Phylum Echinodermata: Astropecten
  10. Phylum Hemichordata:

Group-B: Human Physiology and Applied Zoology

Human Physiology: Outline of the physiology of digestion, blood circulation, respiration, excretion and reproduction; endocrine glands and their functions; vitamins and vitamin deficiency diseases.

Applied Zoology: Introduction to the major fields of applied zoology: Entomology, Fisheries Biology, Wildlife Biology, and Parasitology. Agricultural pests: Major pests of rice, jute, sugarcane and stored grains. Integrated fish farming: Types, poultry, livestock and paddy-cum-fish culture. Poultry farming: System of poultry farming, diseases of poultry and their control, economic importance of poultry and their impacts on socio-economic condition of Bangladesh.


Paper Code

Paper Title Marks Credits Class Hours
213106 Zoology Practical-I 50 2 30
  1. Study of museum specimens: Representative of all major non-chordate phyla (minimum 20 specimens to be studied).
  2. Study of permanent slides: Whole mount, body parts and various cells and invertebrate

tissues (at least 10 slides to be studied)

  1. Whole animals – representatives of protozoans, rotifers and arthropods.
  2. Mouth parts of arthropods.
  3. Parasites – nematodes and platyhelminths.
  4. Different larval forms of invertebrates.
  5. Histological slides of invertebrates.
  6. Preparation and study of whole mounts of different non-chordates.
  7. External morphology and dissection of various organ systems of earthworm, cockroach, prawn, Pila and Lam ellidens.
  1. Digestive system of prawn, Pila and Lamellidens.
  2. Nervous system of cockroach, grasshopper, prawn, Pila and Lamellidens.
  1. Temporary mounting –
  2. Brain of earthworm.
  3. Salivary gland of cockroach.
  4. Statocyst of prawn.
  5. Study of appendages of prawn.
  6. Animal physiology –
  7. Estimation of blood pressure and pulse rate.
  8. Determination of blood group.
  9. Class records.


Distribution of Marks for First Year Final Examination

  1. Major dissection (dissection 8 + display 2 + drawing and labeling 3) = 13 marks.
  2. Temporary mount (staining, mounting and display 3 + drawing and labeling 2) = 5 marks.
  3. Spotting of museum specimens – 8 items (identification and classification 1 + diagnostic

characteristics 1) = 16 marks.

  1. Invertebrate specimens (4 items) 2 × 4 = 8 marks.
  2. Whole mount slides (mouth parts, parasites, larvae) (2 items) 2 × 2 = 4 marks.
  3. Histological slides (2 items) 2 × 2 = 4 marks.
  4. Appendages (detachment, placement and drawing on a paper sheet 3, labeling 2, displaying 1) = 6 marks.
  5. Class records = 10 marks.

Books Recommended:

  1. C.P. Hickman and L.S Roberts. 1995. Animal Diversity Wm.C. Brown
  2. L.S. Dillon. 1976. Animal Variety: An Evolutionary Account: Wm C. brown Company Publishers, Dubuque, Iwoa.
  3. J.D. Bernal. 1969. The Origin of Life. Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London.
  4. E.E. Ruppert and R.D. Barnes. 1994. Invertebrate Zoology (6th edition). Saunders College Publishing-harcourt Brace College Publishers, New York, London
  5. C.P. Hickman. Integrated Principles of Zoology, C.V. Morsby Co. Inc., New York A.J. Marshal and W.D. Williams. Text Book of Zoollogy Invertebrates, (edited the 7th edition of Text Book of Zoology, Vol. I,T.J. Parker and W.A. Haswell)
  6. N.J. Reigle. A Synoptic Introduction to the Animal Kingdom.
  7. E.O. Wilson, T, Eisner and W.R. Brigges, Life: Cells, Organisms Populations. C.C. Chatterjee Human Physiology Vols. I & II
  8. W.H. Davson . A Text Book of General Physiology
  9. G.L. Presser and P.A. Brown Comparative Animal Physiology
  10. B.I. balinsky. An Introduction of Embryology
  11. D. Dent. Insect Pest Management. Chapman and Hall, London.
  12. P. Southgalte and J. Lucas (eds), 1998. Aquaculture Fish and Shellfish Farming Fishing News.
  13. M. King. 1995. Fisheries Biology Assessment and Management. Blackwell Science.
  14. C.G. Scalet. L.D. Flake and D.W. Willis. 1996. Introduction to Wildlife and Fisheries: An Integrated Approach. W.H. Freeman.
  15. TVR. Pillay. 1993. Aquaculture: Principles and Practices. Fishing News Books.
  16. L.P. Pedigo. Entomology and Pest Management.
  17. R.Wall and D. Shearer, 1997. Vetenerary Entomology. Chapman & Hall
  18. V.G. Jingran and R.S.V. Pull in 1985. A Hatchery Manual for the Common, Chinese and Indian Major Carps. ADB/ICLARM
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Paper Code 211501 Marks: 100 Credits: 4          Class Hours: 60
Paper Title:  History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh


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  3. M) 6-`dv Av‡›`vj‡bi cÖwZwµqv, ¸i“Z¡ I Zvrch©
  4. N) AvMiZjv gvgjv, 1968


7|    1969-Gi MYAfy¨Ìvb I 11-`dv Av‡›`vjb

  1. K) cUf~wg
  2. L) Av‡›`vj‡bi Kg©m~Px, ¸i“Z¡ I cwiYwZ


8|    1970 Gi wbe©vPb, Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb I e½eÜzi ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv

  1. K) wbe©vP‡bi djvdj Ges Zv †g‡b wb‡Z †K‡›`ªi A¯^xK…wZ
  2. L) Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vjb, e½eÜzi 7B gv‡P©i fvlY, Acv‡ikb mvP©jvBU
  3. M) e½eÜzi ¯^vaxbZv †NvlYv I †MÖdZvi


9|    gyw³hy× 1971

  1. K) MYnZ¨v, bvix wbh©vZb, kiYv_©x
  2. L) evsjv‡`k miKvi MVb I ¯^vaxbZvi †NvlYvcÎ
  3. M) ¯^Z:ù‚Z© cÖv_wgK cÖwZ‡iva I msMwVZ cÖwZ‡iva (gyw³‡dŠR, gyw³evwnbx, †Mwijv I m¤§yL hy×)
  4. N) gyw³hy‡× cÖPvi gva¨g (¯^vaxb evsjv †eZvi †K›`ª, we‡`kx cÖPvi gva¨g I RbgZ MVb)
  5. O) QvÎ, bvix I mvaviY gvby‡li Ae`vb (MYhy×)
  6. P) gyw³hy‡× e„nrkw³ I gymwjg ivóª mg~‡ni f~wgKv
  7. Q) `Lj`vi evwnbx, kvwš—KwgwU, Avje`i, Avjkvgm, ivRvKvi evwnbx, ivR‰bwZK `j I †`kxq

Ab¨vb¨ mn‡hvMx‡`i ¯^vaxbZvwe‡ivax Kg©KvÛ I eyw×Rxex nZ¨v

  1. R) cvwK¯Ív‡b ew›` Ae¯’vq e½eÜzi wePvi I wek¦cÖwZwµqv
  2. S) cÖevmx evOvwj I we‡k¦i wewfbœ †`‡ki bvMwiK mgv‡Ri f~wgKv
  3. T) gyw³hy‡× fvi‡Zi Ae`vb
  4. U) †hŠ_ evwnbx MVb I weRq
  5. V) ¯^vaxbZv msMÖv‡g e½eÜzi †bZ…Z¡ Ges Ae`vb


10| e½eÜz †kL gywReyi ingv‡bi kvmbKvj, 1972-1975

  1. K) ¯^‡`k cÖZ¨veZ©b
  2. L) msweavb cÖYqb
  3. M) hy× weaŸ¯— †`k cybM©Vb
  4. N) mcwiev‡i e½eÜz nZ¨v I Av`wk©K cUcwieZ©b


History of the Emergence of Independent Bangladesh


Introduction: Scope and description of the emergence of Independent Bangladesh.


  1. Description of the country and its people.
  2. Geographical features and their influence.
  3. Ethnic composition.
  4. Cultural syncretism and religious tolerance.
  5. Distinctive identity of Bangladesh in the context of undivided Bangladesh.


  1. Proposal for undivided sovereign Bengal and the partition of the Sub Continent, 1947.
  2. Rise of communalism under the colonial rule,
  3. Lahore Resolution 1940.
  4. The proposal of Suhrawardi and Sarat Bose for undivided Bengal : consequences
  5. The creation of Pakistan 1947.


  1. Pakistan: Structure of the state and disparity.
  2. Central and provincial structure.
  3. Influence of Military and Civil bureaucracy.
  4. Economic, social and cultural disparity


  1. Language Movement and quest for Bengali identity
  2. Misrule by Muslim League and Struggle for democratic politics.
  3. Foundation of Awami league, 1949
  4. The Language Movement: context and phases.
  5. United front of Haque – Vasani – Suhrawardi: election of 1954, consequences.


  1. Military rule: the regimes of Ayub Khan and Yahia Khan (1958-1971)
  2. Definition of military rules and its characteristics.
  3. Ayub Khan’s rise to power and characteristics of his rule (Political repression,        Basic             democracy, Islamisation)
  4. Fall of Ayub Khan and Yahia Khan’s rule (Abolition of one unit, universal suffrage, the Legal             Framework Order)


  1. Rise of nationalism and the Movement for self determination.
  2. Resistance against cultura l aggression and resurgence   of Bengali culture.
  3. The six point movement of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman
  4. Reactions; Importance and significance of the six Point movement.
  5. The Agortola Case1968.


  1. The mass-upsurge of 1969 and 11 point movement:
    1. background
    2. programme significance and consequences.


  1. Election of 1970 Non-cooperation movement of March 1971 and the Declaration of           Independence by Bangobondhu
  2. Election result and centres refusal to comply
  3. The non co-operation movement, the 7th March Address of Bangobondhu, Operation Searchlight
  4. Declaration of Independence by Bangobondhu and his arrest


  1. The war of Liberation 1971
  2. Genocide, repression of women, refugees
  3. Formation of Bangladesh government and proclamation of Independence
  4. The spontaneous early resistance and subsequent organized resistance (Mukti

Fouz, Mukti Bahini, guerillas and the frontal warfare)

  1. Publicity Campaign in the war of Liberation (Shadhin Bangla Betar Kendra, the

Campaigns abroad and formation of public opinion)

  1. Contribution of students, women and the masses (Peoples war)
  2. The role of super powers and the Muslim states in the Liberation war.
  3. The Anti-liberation activities of the occupation army, the Peace Committee, Al- Badar, Al-    Shams, Rajakars, pro Pakistan political parties and Pakistani        Collaborators, killing of the
  4. Trial of Bangabondhu and reaction of the World Community.
  5. The contribution of India in the Liberation War
  6. Formation of joint command and the Victory
  7. The overall contribution of Bangabondhu and his leadership in the Independence struggle.


  1. The Bangabondhu Regime 1972-1975
  2. Homecoming
  3. Making of the constitution
  4. Reconstruction of the war ravaged country
  5. The murder of Bangabondhu and his family and the ideological turn-around.



mnvqK MÖš’

  1. bxnvi iÄb ivq, evOvjxi BwZnvm, †`Õ R cvewjwks, KjKvZv 1402 mvj|
  2. mvjvn& DwÏb Avn‡g` I Ab¨vb¨ (m¤úvw`Z), evsjv‡`‡ki gyw³ msMÖv‡gi BwZnvm 1947-1971, AvMvgx cÖKvkbx, XvKv 2002|
  3. wmivRyj Bmjvg (m¤úvw`Z), evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm 1704-1971, 3 LÛ, GwkqvwUK †mvmvBwU Ae evsjv‡`k, XvKv 1992|
  4. W. nvi“b-Ai-iwk`, evsjv‡`k: ivRbxwZ, miKvi I kvmbZvwš¿K Dbœqb 1757-2000, wbD GR cvewj‡KkÝ, XvKv 2001|
  5. W. nvi“b-Ai-iwk`, evOvwji ivóªwPš—v I ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki Af~¨`q, AvMvgx cÖKvkbx, XvKv 2003|
  6. W. nvi“b-Ai-iwk`, e½eÜzi Amgvß AvZ¥Rxebx cybcv©V, w` BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm wjwg‡UW, XvKv 2013|
  7. W. AvZdzj nvB wkejx I W.†gvt gvneyei ingvb, evsjv‡`‡ki mvsweavwbK BwZnvm 1773-1972, m~eY© cÖKvkb, XvKv 2013|
  8. gybZvwmi gvgyb I RqšÍ Kzgvi ivq, evsjv‡`‡ki wmwfj mgvR cÖwZôvi msMÖvg, Aemi, XvKv 2006|
  9. AvwZDi ingvb, Amn‡hvM Av‡›`vj‡bi w`b¸wj: gyw³hy‡×i cÖ¯‘wZ ce©, mvwnZ¨ cÖKvk, XvKv 1998|
  10. W. †gvt gvneyei ingvb, evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm, 1905-47, Zvgªwjwc, XvKv 2011|
  11. W. †gvt gvneyei ingvb, evsjv‡`‡ki BwZnvm, 1947-1971, mgq cÖKvkb, XvKv 2012|
  12. ‰mq` Av‡bvqvi †nv‡mb, evsjv‡`‡ki ¯^vaxbZv hy‡× civkw³i f~wgKv, Wvbv cÖKvkbx, XvKv 1982|
  13. Aveyj gvj Ave`yj gywnZ, evsjv‡`k: RvwZiv‡óªi D™¢e, mvwnZ¨ cÖKvk, XvKv 2000|
  14. ‡kL gywReyi ingvb, Amgvß AvZ¥Rxebx, w` BDwbfvwm©wU †cÖm wjwg‡UW, XvKv 2012|
  15. wmivR D`&`xb Avn‡g`, GKvˇii gyw³hy×: ¯^vaxb evsjv‡`‡ki Af~¨`q, BmjvwgK dvD‡Ûkb, XvKv 2011|
  16. RqšÍ Kzgvi ivq, evsjv‡`‡ki ivR‰bwZK BwZnvm, myeY© cÖKvkb, XvKv 2010|
  17. Harun-or-Roshid, The Foreshadowing of Bangladesh: Bengal Muslim League and Muslim Politics, 1906-1947, The University Press Limited, Dhaka 2012.
  18. Rounaq Jahan, Pakistan: Failure in National Integration, The University Press Limited, Dhaka 1977.
  19. Talukder Maniruzzaman, Radical Politics and the Emergence of Bangladesh, Mowla, Brothers, Dhaka 2003.
  20.  ‡gmevn Kvgvj I Ckvbx PµeZx©, bv‡Pv‡ji K…lK we‡`ªvn, mgKvjxb ivRbxwZ I Bjv wgÎ, DËiY, XvKv 2008|
  1. ‡gmevn Kvgvj, Avmv` I Ebmˇii MYAfy¨Ìvb, weeZ©b, XvKv 1986|


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